From the entrances to the tombs of the kings of ancient Egypt
It is hard to imagine that the entrances to the tombs of the kings of ancient Egypt in the Valley of the Kings were comparable to the most luxurious modern palaces in their beauty and splendor. These entrances were not just holes in the rocks, but were decorated with inscriptions, drawings and bright colors that told the stories of the kings' lives, achievements, and worship of gods. It also contained rooms, arcades, stairs and secret doors that protected the burial from theft and looting. But how did the ancient Egyptians manage to build these huge entrances more than 3,000 years ago?
The answer lies in the skill, creativity and planning of cemetery workers, artists and engineers. They used simple tools such as hammers, chisels and saws of stone and copper to dig hard limestone rock. They also used cedar wood from Lebanon to make cushions and scaffolding that helped them lift and stabilize the stones. To decorate the entrances, they used natural pigments extracted from plants, stones and shells to give the bright colors that have survived to this day. To ensure that their drawings fit the size of the entrance, they used a mathematical system to measure dimensions and angles.